Science

Eðli2DL05  Physics - Mechanics

In this course, there are four lessons per week. This is an introductory mechanics course, algebra-based, at a level comparable to Cutnell & Johnson's textbook. Topics include kinematics of 1-dimensional motion; Newton's laws with particular emphasis on understanding applications of Newton's 2nd law of motion in systems that include static and kinetic friction, inclined planes and suchlike; work, energy and power; impulse and conservation of momentum, and basic hydrostatics, including Archimedes' principle, Bernoulli's law and Poiseuille's equation.

The final grade is based on lab work and a student produced notebook, midterms and in-class performance (30% total) and a 2-hour final exam (70%).

Eðli2BY05  Physics - Waves, 2D-motion and Thermodynamics

In this course, there are four lessons per week. The course is designed to allow students to use and add to their knowledge acquired in the previous course EÐLI2DL05. Students study the basic concepts of heat, kinematics in two dimensions, including uniform circular motion, calculus-based treatment of kinematic variables. Furthermore, students study the concepts of gravitation, waves, sound, optics and oscillations. The level of approach is similar to Young & Freedman's University Physics.

The final grade is based on lab work and a student produced notebook, midterms and in-class performance (30% total) and a 2-hour final exam (70%).

Eðli3RA05  Physics - Electricity and magnetism

In this course, there are four lessons per week. The course is designed for students majoring in physics, usually those intending to study engineering or physics at university. Topics include electric forces and electric fields, electric potential and energy; current, resistance and Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws for circuits; capacitors, RC-circuits; magnetic fields and magnetic forces on moving charges and conductors, Biot-Savart law and magnetic fields around straight conductors and simple geometries, Faraday's law of induction and Lenz' law.

The final grade is based on lab work and a student produced notebook, midterms and in-class performance (30% total) and a 2-hour final exam (70%).

Eðli3VE05  Physics - Modern physics and final project

In this course, there are four lessons per week. The course is designed for students majoring in physics. Topics include Special relativity, basic nuclear science, deBroglie, Bohr and Heisenberg's uncertainty relation. Students also study the rotation of rigid bodies. The final project is an independent “research“ project, involving data gathering, analysis, including error propagation, and a final report.

The final grade is based on midterms and in-class performance, homework assignments and lab work and a student produced notebook (50% total) and a final project (50%). 

Stjö2HJ05  Physics - Introductory to astronomy

The course is designed to introduce astronomy, at the level of Pasachoff or Freedman&Kaufman. Students study the concepts of Stellar interiors, formation and evolution post-main sequence; end states of stars; galaxies, the Hubble classification, galaxy clusters, dark matter. Furthermore, students study cosmology and the four pillars of the standard cosmological model. Other concepts include the formation and evolution of the solar system. Students also study exoplanets and life in the universe.

The final grade is based on a final exam (60%), midterms, student presentations and essays.

Efna2AE05

The course is designed to introduce the elements: The periodic system, the atom, metals, non-metals and gases, atomic mass, mole and molar mass. Ionic compounds, molecular compounds. There is also emphasis on studying chemical reactions, i.e. balancing chemical reactions and types of chemical reactions. Students make calculations based on chemical reactions, e.g. on water and aqueous solutions, precipitation and mass measurements, acid-base titration. Students study gases, .e.g. air pressure, the gas laws, the ideal gas equation, chemical reactions and gas volume.

Laboratory component:
1. Freezing and melting of water. Objectives: To collect temperature data during the freezing and melting of water using Vernier data collection equipment. Analyze graphs to determine the freezing and melting temperatures of water. Determine the relationship between the freezing and melting temperatures of water.
2. Precipitation reactions. Objectives: To explore precipitation reactions, soluble vs. insoluble compounds. A qualitative test.
3. Determination of the gas constant, R. In this experiment, hydrogen gas is collected over water. By measuring P, T, n and V it is possible to arrive at an experimental value of R based on PV=nRT.

Efna3LT05

Prerequisite: EFNA2AE05

The course is designed to analyse chemical energy. Students study endothermic and exothermic reactions, calorimetry, thermochemical reactions, enthalpy of reaction, and writing of thermo-chemical reactions. Students also study quantum mechanics, e.g. quantum numbers, atomic orbitals and electron configuration as well as Hund‘s rule. Furthermore, students study periodic properties and trends, chemical bonding, valence electrons, Lewis structures, the octet rule, and the resonance theory. There is also emphasis is placed on molecular geometry (VSEPR), electronegativity, dipole moment, and hybridization of atomic orbitals. Other topics include intermolecular forces, properties of liquids and solids. Students also study properties of solutions, concentration units, colligative properties of solutions and bond polarity and polar/nonpolar molecules. There is also an introduction to liquids and solids, i.e. ionic compounds, metals, melting point, boiling point of substances, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals bonds, surface tension, and viscosity of liquids, the properties of water, solids (ionic, molecular, covalent and metallic crystals, macromolecules and amorphous substances), phase changes, phase diagrams.

Laboratory component:
1. Energy content of foods (calorimetry). Objectives: Determine the energy released from various foods (peanuts, marshmallows, popcorn) as they burn using Vernier data collection equipment. Look for patterns in the amounts of energy released during burning of different foods.
2. Effect of temperature on the solubility of a salt (KNO3). Objectives: Study the effect of changing temperature on the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of water using Vernier data collection equipment. Plot a solubility curve.
3. Determination of molecular weight using freezing point depression. Objectives: Determine the freezing temperature of pure lauric acid using Vernier data collection equipment. Determine the freezing temperature of a solution of benzoic acid and lauric acid. Examine the freezing curves for each. Calculate the experimental molecular weight of benzoic acid. Compare it to the accepted molecular weight for benzoic acid.

Efna3EJ05

Prerequisite: EFNA3LT05

The course is designed to analyse chemical kinetics. Students study rate equations, rate laws, rate constants, temperature dependency of rate constants, the effect of concentration on the rate of chemical reactions, activation energy, reaction mechanisms, elementary steps, and chemical catalysis. Furthermore, students learn about chemical equilibrium: equilibrium state, equilibrium constant, Le Châteliers principle, gases and heterogeneous equilibria, and factors that affect chemical equilibrium. Students acquire knowledge on acids and bases, autoionization of water, the equilibrium constant Kw, strong and weak acids, strong and weak bases, pH, conjugate acid-base pairs, salts of acids and bases. Students also study buffer solutions, acid-base titrations, indicators, solubility, solubility equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect. There is also an introduction to spontaneous reactions, entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, the third law of thermodynamics, and Gibbs free energy.

Laboratory component:
1. The effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction. Objectives: Prepare solutions of different molarity and measure the time it takes for a reaction to go to completion. To determine the rate law of the reaction.
2. The determination of an equilibrium constant, KC. Objectives: To use Vernier data collection equipment to obtain colorimetric measurements to determine molarity (Beer‘s law). Determine KC for a reaction using the measured molarity.
3. Acid-base titration. Objectives: To use Vernier data collection equipment to monitor and record pH during two titrations; strong acid vs. strong base and weak acid vs. strong base. To study and compare the pH profiles (pH vs. time).

Efna3LE05

Prerequisite: EFNA3LT05

The course is designed to analyse nomenclature, structure, bonding and reactions of organic compounds. Students study alkanes, alkenes, polymers, and alkynes. There is also an introduction to aromatic rings, and stereochemistry and chirality. Students acquire knowledge on alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, ethers. Students study nucleophilic substitution reactions, SN1 and SN2. Furthermore, students learn about aldehydes and ketones, nucleophilic additions. There is an introduction to carboxylic acids and their derivatives, and amines.

Laboratory component:
1. Isolation of proteins from milk. Objectives: To isolate casein and albumin from milk.
2. The determination of vitamin C in juice. Objectives: To determine the amount of vitamin C in orange juice based on a titration with potassium iodate, KIO3.
3. Distillation of an ester. Objectives: Ester synthesis and distillation.

Líff2LE05   Physiology

The course is designed to analyse the biological functions of the human being. Amongst the topics are food acquisition, digestion, respiration, material transport, excretion, immune responses, message transmission, movement, reproduction, metabolic control and homeostasis. Each organ system is considered separately, while comparing similar systems. Not only is healthy functioning dealt with but also the most common deviations.

Students should be introduced to the subject matter in as diverse a manner as possible, e.g. through the use of information and communications technology as well as practical lessons.

Líff2EF05  Genetics

Prerequisite: LÍFF2LE05

The course discusses the history of genetics and its importance within natural science. The key issues of genetics are analysed: Cell division, chromosomes and genes, the formation of gametes, fertilisation and evolution. Furthermore, students learn about the genetic makeup of organisms and the factors determining sex. Chromosomes are addressed in the manner in which they control protein synthesis in organisms. Modifications in genetic materials, mutations and chromosome changes are described along with peculiarities in the heredity of microorganisms, while there is also a discussion of the leading methods applied in genetic research and genetic engineering. Genetic frequency and equilibrium in dissimilar populations of organisms are studied. Students are expected to carry out varied project work during the course

Líff3VL05

The course is designed to allow students to use and add to their knowledge and skills acquired in previous biology courses and other school subjects to work on multi-faceted problems and assignments. The main aim of the course is, thus, to break down barriers between earlier courses and subject areas, revise their content and place it in a wider context than previously possible.

Each student writes a scientific essay using reference papers necessitating, at least to some extent, translation from non-Icelandic scientific written works on a more specialised area within biology and/or website material. Students write the essay independently and then work in groups, which prepare a research assignment. The group writes a final report and learns to present their ideas and results in a clear manner in a presentation for the whole class and by making a poster that is presented in a conference for the whole school to attend. Students use a logbook to keep track of their work.

Students choose diverse projects, which in part mirror their special positions and the interest areas of them. Students utilise various equipment and take advantage of communications and information technology in their projects. Collaboration with institutions and various parties within the relevant scientific field is also expected.

Nátt1EL05

The course is designed to pay close attention to the following topics: Introduction to scientific work including chemistry and biology. Students divide their time between chemistry and biology. In their chemistry classes, students learn how to work with the periodic table, the atom, chemical compounds and chemical reactions. During students´ biology classes, students learn about the cell, organic compounds, genes and genetics, reproduction and embryonic development, Darwin and the theory of the evolution.

Raun 1 undirbúningsáfangi

The course is designed for students as an introduction to chemistry, physics and biology and prepares them for courses in those fields. The course focuses on the following topics in chemistry: The atom and isotopes, the periodic table, compounds, chemical bonds, chemical reactions and electromagnetic spectrum. In physics, the course focuses on: Pressure, density, heat energy, changes of phases and gas equation. The biology part focuses on: Introduction to life, organic compounds, cell biology, plants, animals and the environment.

Nátt1EJ05

In this course, students will be introduced to the following topics: Introduction to scientific work including physics and geology. Students divide their time between chemistry and biology. During students´ physics classes, students learn about unit conversions, density, the electromagnetic spectrum and the basics of mechanics, including motion along a straigth line, Newtons law of motion, gravitation, work an kinetic energy. In their geology classes, students learn about the main factors of Icelandic geology, the endogenic and exogenic precesses, structure of the earth, plate tectonics, topography of the earth, petrology, weathering and erosion.

Jarð2AJ05

In this course, students will be introduced to the following topics: Geomorphology, radiometric dating, the endogenic and exogenic precesses, structure of the earth, plate tectonics, topography of the earth, mineralogy, petrology, tectonic activity and earthquakes, volcanic activity, weathering, erosion, fresh water, hydrologic cycle, surface water and fluvial systems, fluvial landforms, glaciology, and glacial landforms.

Jarð3LV05

The course is designed for students as an introduction to the following topics: Electromagnetic radiation, solar energy, insolation, the global energy system, air temperature, heat flow processes, atmospheric moisture and precipitation, the hydrosphere and the hydrologic cycle. Students also study humidity, adiabatic processes, clouds and fog, global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Students acquire knowledge on atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, global wind an pressure patterns, air masses, fronts, tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and tornadoes, global climates and climate change.